This observational study used field tests to investigate the association between physiological parameters and rowing performance in athletes during ergometer and on-water Swiss national competitions. 25 Participants between 15 and 35 years who compete at national level were recruited among different clubs. We assessed anthropometric parameters such as weight, height, aerobic capacity during an incremental test on a rowing ergometer, anaerobic capacity during an on rowing ergometer Wingate test and lower limb strength and power during countermovement- and squat jumps.
Background: The development of Mountain Ultra Marathon (MUM) raises several questions to health professionals, regarding the short or long-term consequences on the health of participants.
Objective: to present the main acute and long-term effects of MUM on the main health issues usually studied among runners.
Methods: Pragmatic review of the literature, including grey literature from the medical staff of the races, notably the Ultra-trail du Mont Blanc.
Concentric and eccentric muscle work is characterized through different biochemical activating cascades. Concentric contraction is characterized by an ATP O2 coupling dependent interaction of the myofibril proteins Aktin and Myosin. In eccentric contraction, according to the Winding-filament hypothesis, a rotation movement around the thin filament is caused which is ATP independent. In addition, the processes of motor anticipation vary greatly between the two. This leads to the aim of the study: What are the differences in concentric versus eccentric muscle work concerning anticipation, perception and execution.
The Lausanne Youth Olympic Games in January 2020 represent a unique opportunity for the canton of Vaud to strengthen its policy of health promotion through physical activity and sport among young people. Several factors influence physical activity and physical fitness of a population. Ecological models describe correlates of physical activity in general population and youth. However, no model describes correlates of physical fitness. To close this gap, the model of physical fitness and its correlates among children and adolescents of the canton of Vaud (PACE model) was developed.
Background: Diffusion of information regarding ‘protecting athletes’ health’ and the ‘promotion of sport for health of the general population’ is a mission of National Sports Federations. Internet is a commonly used source of health-related information. The Olympic Games (OG) are an opportunity for a nation to promote the health benefits of sport.
This article described the clinical examination of the lower extremity during a pre-participation screening in regard of sports ability, presence of injuries and musculoskeletal disorders as well as predisposing risk factors for injuries and prevention. It divided into global static and dynamic testing but also isolated analysis of joint function.
Meniscal Ramp lesions are frequently associated with Anterior Cruciate Ligament ruptures. It has been reported to play a key role in the anterior tibial translation the knee joint. Ramp lesions are difficult to diagnose in imaging modality and are under-recognized when using standard anterolateral and anteromedial arthroscopic portals even with probe test.
Back pain is common among elite cyclists. Experiences of athletes and observations of coaches show that it may influence training quality and sometimes even limit performance during competition. Therefore the following study questions were investigated: 1) How many athletes of the Swiss cycling national teams suffer back pain during training or competition? 2) How good is athletes’ core strength? 3) What correlation exists between back pain and core strength? 4) Does an intensified core strength training reduce back pain?
A total of 111 elite cyclists, 45 athletes (38 m, 7f; 19.6 ± 3.5y) of technical disciplines (BMX, Trial, Downhill, 4X) and 66 athletes (39 m, 27f; 19.5 ± 5.8y) of endurance disciplines (road, MTB, Cyclo-cross) all members of Swiss cycling national teams, took part in in the study.
Exercise testing in athletes and patients is an important and valuable diagnostic tool in the hand of the physician and sport scientist. A close collaboration between sport scientist and sport physician creates a win-win-win-situation for athletes and patients and professionals equally. According to the demands of the sport an incremental lactate threshold test (determination of the anaerobic threshold), testing of VO2max and performance at VO2max, and a testing of aerobic capacity (performance at competitional level) are the tests of choice. All tests need to be valid, reliable and sport specific. Sport specificity in testing is for practical purposes the most important.
Myocarditis is defined as an inflammation of the heart muscle and its presentation, especially in athletes, is heterogeneous. Underlying causes include in most of the cases viruses, and less often bacteria, toxins, vasculitic diseases or pharmaceutical agents. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is the primary imaging tool to diagnose myocarditis following laboratory test, electrocardiogram and echocardiography. In certain cases, endomyocardial biopsy is required, especially in unclear cases with reduced systolic left ventricular ejection fraction.
The elbow is a frequently underestimated and commonly misunderstood joint, leading to a considerable amount of clinical problems. A large part of this due to the largely overlapping and often unspecific symptoms of various diseases and injuries. A better understanding of elbow symptoms and the clinical exam of the elbow is the key to unlocking elbow pathology. This paper reviews a comprehensive and concise exam of the elbow that can easily be employed in a primary care sports medicine setting.
The actual significance and definition of hypertensive response to exercise (HRE) is still debated. Up to now, there is consensus in defining it as a systolic blood pressure value of either ≥ 210 mmHg in men and ≥ 190 mmHg in women or a diastolic blood pressure ≥ 110 mmHg during maximal exercise stress test.
The mechanisms underlying an exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise are poorly understood; however, there are studies suggesting that HRE may represent a preclinical stadium of essential hypertension, which shares several common pathological mechanisms mostly related to an endothelial dysfunction and vascular stiffness.
Young competitive athletes are particularly at risk during puberty. Growth plates and apophyses are reduced in their stability by hormone influence. Epiphyses can slip, apophyses can tear out. Therefore, a regular examination of those athletes is important. The examination should focus on muscular asymmetries, or reduced range of motion of a joint. Shortened muscles have to be recon as a risk factor for apophysitis. Dysbalances of the musculature are mainly found in the trunk area.
Training plans should be adapted to the increased vulnerability.
During the last years, muscle strengthening exercises have been included as an essential part in youth physical activity guidelines of national and international health organisations. It is well-documented that strength training is effective in improving physical fitness and promoting health and psycho-social well-being. Therefore, the purpose of this review article is to present empirical evidence on the effectiveness of strength training in children and adolescents.
Objective: To determine differences between male and female subjects in the thigh muscles characteristics, separated into architectural (pennation, thickness, and/or fascicle length), mechanical (mass, strength, power, and/or stiffness), neuromuscular (activity) and fatigue aspects, in order to better understand the sex-related differences in the risk of muscle injuries.
Methods: A systematic literature search on Pubmed was performed with different keywords: skeletal muscle AND sex characteristics AND muscle contraction, with the following limits: humans and adults (19–44 years old).
The regular consumption of acidic drinks can erode dental enamel and promote caries. As many sports drinks on the market feature critically low pH values, it is possible that athletes with regular sports drink consumption harm their oral health. As neither pH nor osmolality values must be labeled on products, it is difficult for athletes to make informed choices.
We screened the Swiss market for sports drinks and gels for domestic and international brands and products and analyzed products for their pH, titratable acidity, and osmolality.
The restorative qualities of sleep are fundamentally the basis of the individual athlete’s ability to recover and perform, and to optimally be able to challenge and control the effects of exercise regimes in high performance sport. Research consistently shows that a large percentage of the population fails to obtain the recommended 7–9 hours of sleep per night . Moreover, recent years’ research has found that athletes have a high prevalence of poor sleep quality . Given its implications on the recovery process, sleep affects the quality of the athlete’s training and outcome of competitions.
Until now, there have been no studies in Switzerland that investigate differences in the motor performance disposition of children in urban and rural as well as in traditional and physical education kindergartens. A newly developed test instrument (MOBAK-KG) was therefore used in a supra-cantonal research project in school year 2017/18 to test the motor skills of 4- to 6-year-old children (n = 403, Ø 5,7 years, SD = .56) in the areas of “self-movement” and «object-movement».
The fight against doping is not primarily a fight against fallible athletes and coaches but rather a fight for clean athletes and coaches. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how Swiss athletes and coaches perceive the doping problem and the current anti-doping policy. Two online surveys of 1040 Swiss squad coaches and 588 Swiss athletes of various sports were conducted in 2016 and 2017. 41.5% of athletes and 31.5% of coaches identified a serious doping problem in their sport. This perception varied significantly by sport (p≤0.001). 94.2% of athletes and 91.7% of coaches argued in support of a strict prohibition of doping.
There seems to be a lack of consensus among medical associations, professional sports bodies and medical professionals about when pre-participation evaluations (PPE) are indicated and how they should be designed. Although it is generally accepted that the primary purpose of the PPE is the identification of cardiovascular disease and risk factors for sudden cardiac death in competitive athletes, there is an ongoing debate on which methods are most apt in the screening process. Furthermore, the need of PPE has been questioned all together in leisure or hobby athletes.