Arthroplasty is a common procedure in orthopedic surgery to address severe osteoarthritis (OA) in the hip joint. With the burgeoning “baby boomer” generation and older athletes who wish to return to competitive levels of sports, understanding how sporting activity affects arthroplasty outcomes is becoming exceptionally important. The demand for total joint arthroplasty is projected to increase in the first three decades of the twenty-first century. Patients who have had a hip or knee replacement are more and more expecting to participate in athletics after rehabilitation.
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Strategies to improve cognitive aging are highly needed. Among those, promotion of exercise and physical activity appears as one of the most attractive and beneficial intervention. Indeed, results from basic and clinical studies suggest that exercise and physical activity have positive effects on cognition in older persons without cognitive impairment, as well as in those with dementia. Despite inconsistent results, aerobic exercise appears to have the strongest potential to enhance cognition. However, even limited periods of walking (45 minutes, three times a week, over a 6-month period) have also been shown to enhance cognition, particularly executive functions.
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Physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) are central and indispensable components for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In healthy individuals, PA reduces all-cause and CV mortality and has confirmed beneficial effects on the cardiovascular risk profile. In secondary prevention, PA counselling und ET are two of the core components of a multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Exercise-based CR is an established strategy in the secondary prevention of CV disease. It improves survival, reduces hospital admissions, improves cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and quality of life (QoL).
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The knowledge of the effects of conditioning muscle activities on the following performances is highly relevant in professional sports. In this paper, an attempt was made to analyse the direct effects of a sensorimotor training (SMT) on the explosive leg strength. Therefore 28 physically active subjects were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). Subjects were tested on two separate days. Isometric maximum voluntary contractions were investigated in a leg press. Maximum rate of force development RFDmax as well as neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles were analysed in all subjects and compared between days.
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A career in elite sports requires a significant investment of time. Professional sportsmen, such as Swiss ice hockey players, are intensively involved in the system of high-performance sports. From junior years through to the end of a professional career, a high investment of time is necessary to develop the appropriate sporting achievements. Building an ice hockey career occurs at the same time as the school phase of vocational training. The high time-demand of sport training can affect the choices and occupational opportunities offered at this time. After the end of the professional career and hockey players are forced to enter ’normal’ working life.
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The intermittent fasting of Ramadan could affect various aspects of body physiology and biochemistry important to athletic success. Sleep time may be shortened. Disturbance of psychomotor performance, impaired vigilance and slower reactions can be observed particularly during afternoon. Food intake is limited to night-time meals. Well disciplined athletes usually maintain energy balance unless daily energy expenditures are very high. Daytime fluid depletion is inevitable if athletes exercise in the heat.
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The human foot is a flexible structure characterized by a pronounced medial longitudinal arch (MLA) that compresses and recoils during running. That process is actively driven by the intrinsic foot muscles and requires a proper stability of the MLA. This introduces the concept of foot core stability. Because the intrinsic foot muscles are often neglected by clinicians and researchers, the purpose of this article is to provide some guidelines for incorporating foot core training in prevention or rehabilitation programmes for runners.
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Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is very prevalent in world population and growing evidence shows that also athletes are affected. Vitamin D deficiency causes beside bone disorders, musculoskeletal pain, muscle weakness and is associated with many other health disorders. For athletes in particular it may impair training and performance, prolong recovery and increase risk of injury. We therefore analyzed vitamin D levels in Swiss athletes focusing on prevalence according to age, gender, seasonal variations, indoor or outdoor sports, sunscreen use and vitamin D supplementation. Methods: This study was performed in a convenient sample of 655 Swiss Olympic athletes over one year. Blood samples were obtained and a questionnaire was filled in at Swiss Olympic Medical Centers or Bases during an annual routine exam.
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Iron deficiency is frequent among athletes. All types of iron deficiency may affect physical performance and should be treated. The main mechanisms by which sport leads to iron deficiency are an increased iron demand, an elevated iron loss and a blockage of iron absorption due to hepcidin bursts. As a baseline set of blood tests, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cellular volume (MCV), mean cellular haemoglobin (MCH) and serum ferritin levels are the important parameters to monitor iron deficiency. In healthy male and female athletes >15 years, ferritin values <15µg/l are equivalent to empty, values from 15 to 30µg/l to low iron stores. Therefore a cut-off of 30µg/l is appropriate. For children aged from 6–12 years and younger adolescents from 12–15 years, cut-offs of 15 and 20µg/l, respectively are recommended.
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Problems: Correlations between the occlusal situation and the movement apparatus are currently controversially discussed in literature. However, studies with athletes are missing in this area. Therefore the question arises, whether a systematic block of the occlusion by a silicone panel shows effects on the postural control in athletes. Methods: In this study 16 male volunteers of a team of 1. Handball league were investigated. With the help of 1 or 2 mm thick silicon panel their occlusion was blocked symmetrical and asymmetrical. The effects in terms of their postural control were recorded on a force plate (GP Multisens, GeBioM, Münster/Germany).
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Strength training has numerous positive effects on fitness, health, and physical performance. In terms of Evidenced Based Training, however, there is a scientific lack of facts regarding the efficiency of different physical criteria and training methodology. By means of a meta-analysis including 45 primary studies and a total num ber of 1712 participants, 203 effect sizes in pre-post design were identi-fied regarding the variation of maximum strength. The effect sizes found differed depending on individual preconditions, such as train ing status, gender, age, and methodological variables like du-ration of study, total training frequency, training parameters, etc.
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Strength and power are next to the other conditional requirements, as well as the technical, tactical, psychological requirements, a limiting factor in team sports. Therefore, it makes sense to also train strength. The maximal strength is understood as the maximal force the neuromuscular system can produce during a maximal voluntary contraction. A high maximal power is in many sports a basis for a high level of performance. The explosive strength is the ability of the neuromuscular system to develop a maximum impulse within a given time (Schmidtbleicher, 2003).
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Early detection and monitoring of overweight and obesity in childhood has become a public health priority worldwide in the 21st century. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among 5, 10 and 14 year-olds children in Liechtenstein. The study is based on a time series of 4 cross-sectional screening examinations conducted in 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010 and included data of 2978 children (1490 boys and 1488 girls). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated on anthropometric measurements and categorised using international as well as German cut-off criteria.
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